Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.
American Revolution: John Paul Jones on board the USS Bonhomme Richard wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.
Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.
World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.
Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282: The first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II occurs.
Bob Marley plays what would be his last concert in Pittsburgh.
The first public version of the web browser Mozilla Firefox ("Phoenix 0.1") is released.
Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides.